Walls of Verona
The founder of the International Fund for Monuments (now World Monuments Fund), Col. James Gray compiled this study of fortified walls of Verona in 1954, while stationed with the U.S. military in Italy. Gray traces the origin and development of the city walls from the third century B.C. to the unification of Italy during the last half of the nineteenth century, discussing various campaigns of wall construction and rebuilding as well as periods of neglect and destruction at the hands of invading forces. An underappreciated part of the city’s defenses, which also include Castel San Marino and the Cittadelle, the walls can be more than 13 meters high and reflect the advancement in siege warfare and urban defenses.